+ Slide 38
Redundant Vote Recording
Electronic voting systems "shall maintain an electronic or physical image of each ballot, in an independent data path"
Section 220.127.116.11 of the 1990 FEC/NASED standard
No vendor has ever produced a system that actually did this!
No examiner or auditor has ever demanded that this be done!
Genuinely independent data paths are difficult to build;
this would mean parallel computer systems independently
monitoring the touch screen and independently recording
and interpreting each user action.
Genuinely independence would require that the software
on each data path share no common components or
This would return to the biblical standard of two witnesses!
Today's systems use redundancy only for fault tolerance!